Tibet 1951 - KeithSprigg

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Tibet 1951

TIBET IN 1951 – A FINAL CHAPTER IN PICTURES by Maya Smith (nee Sprigg)

In 1951 Keith visited Tibet just before the Chinese invasion.  A classics scholar from Cambridge, he  had registered for a PhD in Spoken Tibetan and, with the backing of the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in London, undertook a three week trip to Gyantse. He was one of the last Europeans to see ‘Free’ Tibet.

The thumbnail photographs below are taken from high resolution scans of the original glass slides. If you would like access to those slides for acaademic or commercial use please contact Maya
on mayasprigg@gmail.com.


By Maya Smith (nee Sprigg):
My mother was born into the Macdonald family of Kalimpong, West Bengal. The family had been linked with Tibet since the Younghusband expedition in 1904. She grew up in the family home, which had become the Himalayan Hotel, brought up mainly by her doting aunt, Annie Perry, and surrounded by animals, family retainers and all sorts of paraphernalia collected over the years, much of it from Tibet. Life at the hotel was varied and colourful. Her grandfather, David Macdonald, had accompanied the Younghusband expedition to Tibet in 1904 and became British Trade Agent in Tibet (Yatung and Gyantse 1905-1925). Macdonald aided the Dalai Lama’s flight from Tibet in 1910 and his presence at the hotel attracted visitors from all walks of life, from the grandest to the lowest born. No one who had a connection with Tibet could pass by Kalimpong without paying their respects to him.  All had their stories to tell and these were not lost on an impressionable girl.

David Macdonald, my great grandfather, wrote two books about Tibet, The Land of The Lama’ (1929) and ‘Twenty Years In Tibet’ (1932). In his final years, he wrote a personal account of his time in Tibet for his family. His son, also David Macdonald, also wrote a biography about his illustrious father which explains in more detail the man he actually was as opposed to ‘the man he would have liked to have been seen as’ by his acquaintances of the time.

Though it has never been published, my mother wrote an impressive manuscript in her later years, describing her childhood in Kalimpong and the fascinating goings on at the Himalayan Hotel.

Armed with the writings of these eminent academics and close family members, I have set out sections from each of these writings. This shows an eclectic view of Tibet through their eyes. My father was one of the last Europeans to leave Tibet before the Chinese invasion in 1951. My great grandfather’s writings for his family after twenty years tenure with the British Government there show his true commitment and a deep rooted love for the country and its people. My great uncle’s biography of his father shows David Macdonald senior perhaps more as he actually was, rather than as he wished to be perceived. My mother’s words are the memories and musings of a devoted sister, growing up in a very influential anglo-Indian family  in the Darjeeling hills.

I had the honour to meet the Dalai Lama in Oxford in May 2008. This was a meeting organized by Roger Croston, gathering together of families and their descendants who had been involved with Tibet. Arranged by ‘year of involvement’, I found that the MacDonald ranking was one of the earliest. Many families had continued their love of the country, its people and its customs, but only rarely had the involvement continued much more than that. For us, the devotion seemed to have transcended the years. The family continued to live in northern India, close to the border with Sikkim and thence Tibet and my father, having sought out that connection, married into the family and continued the connection through his research and his work.

As Tibet’s stance in the world changes, linked ignominiously with China as the latter strides through the twenty first century the attitude of the West and indeed of the Tibetan people themselves  changes with it.

This writing is not meant to look at the rights of wrongs of the changes brought to Tibet since the 1950’s. It is to record my family’s involvement and love of the country and the show the world some hitherto unseen photographs and writings which may be of interest to others.

By its very nature, Tibet is isolated from the world. High and difficult terrain and extremes of temperature may create a hardy people but, for visitors from the ‘outside’, travel is awkward and not many Europeans were allowed to enter the country. By the time of my father’s visit in 1951, apprehension about the future had already begun to spread across this peaceful, devoutly Buddhist society and within a few months of his trip, the landscape had irretrievably changed and a way of life which had altered little for centuries was gone. Against a volatile political backdrop, travelling to Tibet early in 1951 may have seemed rather unwise.

On his journey through Southern Tibet he took recordings of Tibetan and a number of photographs on glass slides. They provide a unique insight into life in Tibet shortly before the Chinese invasion. They have never been published or available to a larger audience.

In May 2008, I had the honour to meet the Dalai Lama when he visited Oxford and heard him speak about his hopes for the Tibetan people, for their religious and cultural freedom within the Chinese regime.

I hope this reminder of old Tibet and what has been lost will help to further the Dalai Lama’s aims, reinforcing interest and pride in Tibetan culture.

Mrs Eirene Maya Smith (nee Sprigg)

SLIDE 25 Thanka of ‘The Wheel of Life’ One of 6 thankas stolen from the Himalayan Hotel in
 199???

In September 1949, Dr Sprigg embarked on a research project  -
‘To complete a phonetic and phonological study of Spoken Tibetan (Lhasa dialect). In addition, to record Tibetan texts of sociological interest, preferably in Lhasa’.

SLIDE 3  Map of Tibet  NEED TO ADD ANOTHER MAP WITH THE RKS ROUTE MARKED

With his Research Assistant, Mr Rinzin Wangpo, he set sail for India in September 1949 and made his way to the Himalayan foothills, to Kalimpong, near Darjeeling, which he made his base to organize the expedition into Tibet. At the time of Sprigg’s visit, the Himalayan Hotel was run by the very amiable and gregarious Mrs Annie Perry, one of David Macdonald’s daughters. The location of the hotel, on a sizeable tract of land with breathtaking views of the snows of the Kanchenjunga range, is one of the most beautiful places on earth. The air and feeling of luxurious space as the mountains seem to drift into infinity give it a magical quality, which those who know the place will attest to.

SLIDE 53 The grounds of The Residency, Gangtok, Sikkim. Tibetan New Year. Dec 1949. The
 Cemetary? Dance

Here he met Ray Wiliams whom he would marry in England in 1952. Ray was a granddaughter of David Macdonald. The family had long been associated with Tibet. Macdonald had been an assistant and friend of Colonel L. A Waddell, C.B., C.I.E., I.M.S. during the Younghusband Mission to Lhasa in 1904 and he was appointed British Trade Agent in Tibet in 1905, a post which he held until his retirement in 1925. Macdonald was a proficient speaker of Tibetan, Bengali, Bhutanese, Sikkimese, Lepcha, Hindi and Nepali. He published two books on Tibet, ‘The Land of The Lama’ (1929) and ‘Twenty Years In Tibet’ (1932). Macdonald lived in Kalimpong during the latter part of his life and the family home later became ‘The Himalayan Hotel’.

****(piccie of RKS/Ray wedding? Piccie of David Macdonald? Himhot?)

The Macdonald family’s close connections to Tibet enabled them to introduce Sprigg to many Tibetan speakers. Rajah and Rani Dorji of Bhutan, and their Tibetan daughter-in-law, Tess La gave him the use of their Kalimpong house to make his recordings.

SLIDE 4  Kalimpong. The Tibetan Trade Agent in Gangtok (over Bunny Gupta’s house)
 And the first Rani of ?? (RKS will find name) Tendong Tze, a casualty of the Chinese

SLIDE 15 Outside The Himalayan Hotel, Kalimpong. A travelling group of musicians. Khampas
 from Eastern Tibet. Dance is performed on a small platform to a Dzo(??) a three-string
 lute

Permission to travel to Lhasa was not easy to obtain.  Sprigg had already sent  requests supported by Rajah Dorji, Sir Basil Gould, C.M.G., C.I.E., I.C.S (Ret’d) and Pomda Tshang, a prominent Tibetan official, without success. Sri Harish Dayal, of the Bureau of External Affairs, had just returned from Lhasa and advised Sprigg that it would be unwise to attempt to travel to Lhasa because of the threat of invasion.

In January 1950, Mr H E Richardson, C.I.E., O.B.E. of the Indian Mission in Lhasa broke his journey in Kalimpong when travelling back to Lhasa. He warned Sprigg that a trip to Lhasa was out of the question, and advised him instead to travel to Gyantse which he thought would provide a good alternative. The permit was the equivalent to today’s visa, and was only granted after a careful consideration process. There were Chinese incursions into Eastern Tibet at the time, so Sprigg confined his travel to the South. At the time of departure, he had no idea how imminent the Chinese offensive was.

The aim was to complete six recordings, each about ten minutes long.  Sprigg hoped to interview Tibetan aristocracy as it was considered at the time that their command of the spoken language would be most authentic.  He had taken with him a ‘Wirek’ five-wire reel to reel recorder, made by Boosey and Hawkes, which was one of the market leaders of the day. This was to be powered by a 12 volt car battery when no electricity was available. The slides in this book were taken with a ??>?>? camera that illustrate this book. Sprigg also engaged the services of a ‘personal servant’, a tall handsome Tibetan named Penjor Punzor, who was in his early twenties.  

The expedition was allowed three weeks in Gyantse, and seven weeks on Tibetan soil. The preparations were organized with help from various members of the Macdonald family. David Macdonald provided letters of introduction and a reference, written in Tibetan, to try to smooth the journey.  Sprigg asked Macdonald to coach him in Tibetan, but this did not materialise.  By this time, Macdonald was in his eighties and very deaf. Another problem was that he spoke classical Tibetan, which was not spoken by the general population.

Sprigg left Kalimpong on 22nd April 1950, travelling first to Gangtok in Sikkim as a guest of Sri Harish Dayal, who arranged accommodation at Indian Government ‘bungalows’ (guest houses).  The party was modest by the standards of the day, consisting only of two ‘coolies’ (unskilled porters) and two muleteers, who looked after the two riding- and four pack- mules. The coolies hated the ‘recording machines’ as they were so heavy.  Much of the other supplies were presents to be given in Gyantse; tinned fruit, cigarettes, chocolates and ceremonial scarves, as is the Tibetan custom.

SLIDE 5  A shepherd and his flock around the edge of the Salt Water Lake, Dochen. The lake is
 named ?????? which means ‘Beautiful’
SLIDE 6  Salt Water Lake, Dochen. A days walk from Yatung
SLIDE 52 Nomads camped near Phari
SLIDE 54 RC: Yaks laden with wood en route for Gyantse. The wood comes from Yatung, which
is below the tree line May 1950
SLIDE 54 Yak transport. Carrying heavy loads from Yatung

It was a heavy Winter that year. The deep snow blocked the Natula and Jelapla passes and delayed the start of the trip. Sprigg found that altitude sickness was not a problem except at the Natula, at a

SLIDE 8  Tibetan traders at the Jalepla, their mules heavily laden
SLIDE 1  Chortens at Pibithang (Where is that?)

The Indo-Tibetan frontier was at Yatung, at a bridge over the River Amo. The Tibetan officials were very menacing, brandishing their weapons and, on presentation of his permit, Sprigg was immediately arrested and escorted to see the Governor.  The Governor sent for an interpreter, but unfortunately the interpreter had only a smattering of English and served only to confound the situation. However, with persuasion from the Indian frontier official, the Governor finally issued a permit to travel to Gyantse.

One person who Sprigg met, but who does not appear in the photographs, is a white Russian an electrical engineer, who was on his way to ‘electrify’ Lhasa. Transport had been provided for him by the Tibetan Government.

The guest houses were a small, basic affair. Everyone went to bed early, when darkness fell. There was no power, and consequently no light, save the dim glow given off by hissing kerosene lamps. The bustle of breakfast woke the party at first light, accompanied by the smell of rancid milk for the butter tea. The Tibetans were enormously fond of butter tea and depended on it heavily – indeed there was little food available, perhaps some rice in wealthier households.

SLIDE 56 Dead mule in the Natula pass

Sprigg created a sensation, being the first foreigner to bring a camp bed, as well as a bedding roll to sleep on.  The bedding roll, which contained much of his clothing, tended to be lumpy and hard.

SLIDE 59 Slide says Gangtok, Sikkim

From Yatung, the expedition traveled to Phari, (Slide of Phari?) covering about fifteen miles a day. They rose at five a.m., and left at 6.am every day to make the most of the natural light. They were given a sheep’s carcass in Phari, which solved the need to stop and buy provisions.

SLIDE 19 Prayer wheels  at Phari Dzong? Part of the castle wall (same as 61)
SLIDE 61 Prayer Wheels at Phari Jong
SLIDE 62 Street scene in Phari.

SLIDE 21 Phari Dzong. Extremely dark inside and lit only by butter lamps. (Pendor Choten???)
SLIDE 29 Street scene in Phari. Extremely dirty conditions
SLIDE 45 Yak with saddle outside Phari Zong
SLIDE 49 A street scene. Slide says Phari

They reached Gyantse six days later, and Sprigg was based at the Government of India guest house, which was in close proximity to the Governor’s office. The town had a population of about 2,000, of whom about 800 were monks, based at a large monastery overlooking the town. The guest house was situated about a mile outside the town and in residence were several Tibetan officials, two Indian officers and Richardson’s clerks. All seemed pleased to welcome the party into their tiny society.

SLIDE 46 Gyantse plain
SLIDE 12 The Castle Gyantse on the outskirts of the town. It was used as a carpet factory in
 1950
SLIDE 14 Gyantse Monastery

Visits to the Governor were frequent. He was quite a young man, with an able wife and a twelve year old daughter, who started classes early in the morning at about 7am. She was learning Tibetan. Education for girls was very common, and Sprigg was able to sit in on her classes. If the families were wealthy enough, they travelled to India, often to the Darjeeling area, to receive instruction in English during the school holidays. The children started school early and with huge enjoyment, waking at about 6am, laughing and chatting as they walked. Instruction was given in the open air. The children sat on benches, arranged in three rows, using boards and wax. Some had beautiful hand writing.

Disappointingly, the Lhasa dialect was confined to one class of the population in Gyantse; the officials. This was extended when, towards the end of his stay at the guest house, a Tibetan official and his complete household arrived, including not just his family, but their servants, steward and chaplain. This afforded Sprigg an impression of what an official’s life is like, and a wider circle of Tibetan speakers.

SLIDE 2  Daughter of the Governor, Se-mo Rangtruck (double check – different person???)
SLIDE 11 The Trade Agent, his wife and sister, posing with the only trees in the Chumbi Valley
 RC: Is it Kalimpong? RKS unsure
 Slide says Rangtruck family. Ask RKS for names
SLIDE 40 See slide 11 – same family
SLIDE 10 The Governor’s daughter  outside the Tibetan Trade Agency, with slate
 height of 14,300 feet.  (Is this correct – slide seems to be someone else – one of the
 children???)
SLIDE 27 School room

The local nobility expected to be called on and social engagements were many and taken seriously.  Making and receiving calls was the order of the day, with visits to monasteries, lama-dances, markets, ale-houses and, through the kindness of the Commanding Officer who put his stable at Sprigg’s disposal, local country houses.  The Governor laid on a banquet at the conclusion of the trip and Sprigg gave two entertainments to thank his hosts, one for the Tibetan officials, the other for the Indian officers and clerks.
SLIDE 43 Taring, about 10 miles outside of Gyantse. Built in a river, which flooded badly in 1954
 –  about 20 feet deep

Tibetan parties are arranged fairly loosely – invitations are sometimes in writing, more often by word of mouth - and people come and go as they please. The atmosphere is carefree and enjoyment is a must.

Gyantse was not a particularly wealthy area. People had to make do with what they had and luxuries were rare. Much was determined by the rainy climate and the location on the Amo River. Rather than a raging torrent, this was a rather neat little stream at the time of the expedition, and the surrounding area was well cultivated.  By local standards, the expedition travelled in luxury.

(Maya to find the exercise books detailing the expenses for the trip – publish some interesting parts
SLIDE 22 The school in Gyantse (Phari?)
SLIDE 23 Street scene in Gyantse with the castle in the background. Decorations adorn the roof
SLIDE 18 Dung drying on a wall with the chowkeda’s  childen – all keen to be photographed.
 Hand prints in the dung. Just outside the bungalow where RKS stayed in Gyantse.

There were quite a number of Indian residents in Gyantse at the time, who seemed quite at ease and accepted. They played hockey and badminton for recreation. The only unease was caused by the threat of the Chinese advance. Sprigg thought it was imminent, and this was echoed by the Tibetan Government officials, who lived in fear of the Chinese making further inroads into the country.

SLIDE 16 The road up to the castle, Gyantse. A 20 minute hard slog at 4,000ft
SLIDE 31 Gyantse Monastery
SLIDE 34 Gyantse Monastery
SLIDE 51 Gyantse Monastery. Beautiful fresco work. Watched by a young monk on the roof

The Abbot of the Monastery, Egwan Chorden was the Senior Governor, a commanding personality, even at the tender age of about twenty.  Understandably, he was a little nervous of foreigners and unwilling to enter into political debate, but the Chinese advance was clearly weighing heavily on his mind. There were no Chinese in Gyantse at the time, nor any Chinese influence over the administration, though there was much talk of the incursions.

SLIDE 7  The Abbot at Gyantse. Bamboo grew well here. The Tibetan Trade Agency is in the
 background. He was killed by the Chinese
SLIDE 9  The Abbot again. He had a variety of different costumes and clearly enjoyed showing
 them off
SLIDE 24 The Abbot at Gyantse.
SLIDE 32 The Abbot at Gyantse.
SLIDE 33 The Abbot at Gyantse.
SLIDE 36 The Abbot / Governor at Gyantse. He carried out both roles. A young man for such an
 important position
SLIDE 38 The Abbot at Gyantse
SLIDE 44 The Abbot at Gyantse.

The Dalai Lama had not achieved his majority by this time. Still a teenager, he was receiving instruction in Lhasa and the Regent was in control of the Tibetan administration. The locals, content with what seemed to be a simple though fulfilling life, were clearly very apprehensive and concerned for the Dalai Lama. From conversations with them, it seemed only a matter of time until the Chinese hold became stronger throughout Tibet. There was great interest in the British response and their attitude to the Chinese advance.

SLIDE 55 The Palace Monastery – Gangtok, Sikkim???
SLIDE 60 The acting Abbot. This is the monastery where the DL stayed when running away from
 the Chinese. Tonkan gongpa??? Name??Toygan? Kunling gan?
SLIDE 50 Farewell party in Gyantse

Though Sprigg would have liked to stay longer in the area, the threat of the Chinese advance was clear and a prompt return to India was deemed prudent.  Accordingly, on 28th May 1950, after three weeks in Gyantse, he and his party returned to India, via Dochen and Yatung. The Natula pass, though treacherous and snow covered afforded some of the most spectacular views of the trip.

SLIDE 17 Heavily loaded pack mules with bells slung around their necks
SLIDE 28 Need to identify this pass

Sprigg left India on 7th September 1950. He continued his work at SOAS for the next 30 years and ‘retired’ to Kalimpong in 1980. He remained in India for the next 20 years where he continued his work on phonetics and linguistics living at Dr Grahams Homes and at the Himalayan Hotel. He even gained an entry in ‘Lonely Planet’ as a tourist attraction!

SLIDE 35 Can’t read much – Drolma???, near Khangma – could this be the big boulders – Red
Idol Gorge? Same slides  #35,  47 and 58
SLIDE 37 Kangma. Mules being loaded with wool
SLIDE 48 Slide says Samanda??
EXTRA SLIDE 2 The monastery, Samanda

Sources:
Research Project for School of Oriental and African Studies by R K Sprigg Oct 1950
Personal notes made during interviews 2006-2009
The Land of The Lama by David Macdonald. 1929 Published by Seeley Service and Co., Limited
Twenty Years in Tibet by David Macdonald. 1932 Published by Seeley Service and Co., Limited
My thanks to my father, Dr R K Sprigg, to Roger Croston, Roger Moland (Interview 9th Aug 2008)
Reg and Christian Milne

SLIDES NOT USED
SLIDE 13 (No slide # 13)
SLIDE 20 The Abbot – SAME AS SLIDE 9
SLIDE 26 ?? Long low bungalow??
SLIDE 30 Same as slide 52
SLIDE 39 Duplicate of slide #10
SLIDE 41 See slide 25. Same?
SLIDE 42 Use slide 46 – better quality slide of same view
SLIDE 47 Same slides  #35,  47 and 58
SLIDE 58 Same slides  #35,  47 and 58
EXTRA SLIDE 1 The Abbot, Gyantse
EXTRA SLIDE 3 Duplicate

Additional info
Which slide? Natula Pass. Tibet side. Near the head of the pass.

Barley fields – nothing else grows at that height
Capt. Patel of the Indian Army. Lent a horse to go to visit the Tarings – they were out!

SLIDES – BY NUMBER
SLIDE 1  Chortens at Pibithang (Where is that?)
SLIDE 2  Daughter of the Governor, Se-mo Rangtruck
SLIDE 3  Map of Tibet
SLIDE 4  Kalimpong. The Tibetan Trade Agent in Gangtok (over Bunny Gupta’s house)
 And the first Rani of ?? (RKS will find name) Tendong Tze, a casualty of the Chinese
SLIDE 5  A shepherd and his flock around the edge of  the Salt Water Lake, Dochen. The lake is named ?????? which means ‘Beautiful’
SLIDE 6  Salt Water Lake, Dochen. A days walk from Yatung
SLIDE 7  The Abbot at Gyantse. Bamboo grew well here. The Tibetan Trade Agency is in the
 background. He was killed by the Chinese
SLIDE 8  Tibetan traders at the Jalepla, their mules heavily laden
SLIDE 9  The Abbot again. He had a variety of different costumes and clearly enjoyed showing
 them off
SLIDE 10 The Governor’s daughter  outside the Tibetan Trade Agency, with slate
SLIDE 11 The Trade Agent, his wife and sister, posing with the only trees in the Chumbi Valley
 RC: Is it Kalimpong? RKS unsure
 Slide says Rangtruck family. Ask RKS for names
SLIDE 12 The Castle Gyantse on the outskirts of the town. It was used as a carpet factory in 1950
SLIDE 13 (No slide # 13)
SLIDE 14 Gyantse Monastery
SLIDE 15 Outside The Himalayan Hotel, Kalimpong. A travelling group of musicians. Khampas
 from Eastern Tibet. Dance is performed on a small platform to a Dzo(??) a three-string
 lute
SLIDE 16 The road up to the castle, Gyantse. A 20 minute hard slog at 4,000ft
SLIDE 17 Heavily loaded pack mules with bells slung around their necks
SLIDE 18 Dung drying on a wall with the chowkeda’s  childen – all keen to be photographed. Hand prints in the dung. Just outside the bungalow where RKS stayed in Gyantse.
SLIDE 19 Phari Dzong? Part of the castle wall (same as 61)
SLIDE 20 The Abbot at Gyantse.
SLIDE 21 Phari Dzong. Extremely dark inside and lit only by butter lamps. (Pendor Choten???)
SLIDE 22 The school in Gyantse (Phari?)
SLIDE 23 Street scene in Gyantse with the castle in the background. Decorations adorn the roof
SLIDE 24 The Abbot at Gyantse.
SLIDE 25 Thanka of ‘The Wheel of Life’ One of 6 thankas stolen from the Himalayan Hotel in
 199???
SLIDE 26 ?? Long low bungalow??
SLIDE 27 School room
SLIDE 28 Need to identify this pass
SLIDE 29 Street scene in Phari. Extremely dirty conditions
SLIDE 30 Same as slide 52
SLIDE 31 Gyantse Monastery
SLIDE 32 The Abbot at Gyantse.
SLIDE 33 The Abbot at Gyantse.
SLIDE 34 Gyantse Monastery
SLIDE 35 Can’t read much – Drolma???, near Khangma – could this be the big boulders – Red Idol
 Gorge? Same slides  #35,  47 and 58
SLIDE 36 The Abbot / Governor at Gyantse. He carried out both roles. A young man for such an
 important position
SLIDE 37 Kangma. Mules being loaded with wool
SLIDE 38 The Abbot at Gyantse
SLIDE 39 Duplicate of slide #10
SLIDE 40 See slide 11 – same family
SLIDE 41 See slide 25
SLIDE 42 Use slide 46 – better quality slide of same view
SLIDE 43 Taring, about 10 miles outside of Gyantse. Built in a river, which flooded badly in 1954 –
 about 20 feet deep
SLIDE 44 The Abbot at Gyantse.
SLIDE 45 Yak with saddle outside Phari Zong
SLIDE 46 Gyantse plain
SLIDE 47 Same slides  #35,  47 and 58
SLIDE 48 Slide says Samand??
SLIDE 49 Slide says Phari
SLIDE 50 Farewell party in Gyantse
SLIDE 51 Gyantse Monastery. Beautiful fresco work. Watched by a young monk on the roof
SLIDE 52 Nomads camped near Phari
SLIDE 53 The grounds of The Residency, Gangtok, Sikkim. Tibetan New Year. Dec 1949. The
 Cemetary? Dance
SLIDE 54 RC: Yaks laden with wood en route for Gyantse. The wood comes from Yatung, which is
 below the tree line May 1950
SLIDE 54 Yak transport. Carrying heavy loads from Yatung
SLIDE 55 The Palace Monastery – Gangtok, Sikkim???
SLIDE 56 Dead mule in the Natula pass
SLIDE 57 Trongtre??? SP??? Dances. Is this Kalimpong?
SLIDE 58 Same slides  #35,  47 and 58
SLIDE 59 Slide says Gangtok, Sikkim
SLIDE 60 The acting Abbot. This is the monastery where the DL stayed when running away from
 the Chinese. Tonkan gongpa??? Name??Toygan? Kunling gan?
SLIDE 61 Prayer Wheels at Phari Jong
SLIDE 62 Street scene in Phari.
EXTRA SLIDE 1 The Abbot, Gyantse
EXTRA SLIDE 2 The monastery, Samanda
EXTRA SLIDE 3 Duplicate



 
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